Inpatient

Find below a list of research papers on the inpatient management of acute malnutrition.

Please let us know if there are other relevant papers not listed here.

WHO guidelines

Ashworth, A., Jackson, A., Uauy, R. (2007) Focusing on malnutrition management to improve child survival in India. Indian Pediatr 2007: 44: 413-6. Link

Ashworth, A., Jackson, A., Khanum, S., Schofield, C. (1996) Ten steps to recovery. Child Health Dialogue 1996; 10-12.

Ashworth, A., Khanum, S. (1997) Cost-effective treatment for severely malnourished children: what is the best approach? Health Policy Plan 1997; 12: 115-121. Link

Ashworth, A., Schofield, C. (1998) Latest developments in the treatment of severe malnutrition in children. Nutrition 1998; 14: 244-245. Link

World Health Organisation. (2005) Severe malnutrition: Report of a consultation to review current literature. WHO: Geneva. Link

World Health Organisation (2004) WHO informal consultation to review current literature on severe malnutrition. WHO: Geneva.

Inpatient management effectiveness

Ahmed, T., Ali, M., Ullah, M.M. et al. (1999) Mortality in severely malnourished children with diarrhoea and use of a standardised management protocol. Lancet 1999; 353: 1919-1922. Link

Ahmed, T., Islam, M., Adhikari, S., et al. (2001) Management of severe malnutrition: mortality among children treated by the adapted WHO protocol, and catch-up growth on indigenous diets. Ann Nutr Metab 2001;45 (suppl 1):319.

Aiyer, S. (2003) Management of severe malnutrition with WHO protocol, feasibility application and impact on mortality and duration of recovery. Paper presented at 9th Asian Congress on Nutrition, 2003, Delhi.

Ashworth, A. (2001) Treatment of severe malnutrition. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2001; 32: 516-518. Link

Ashworth, A., Chopra, M., McCoy, D., Sanders, D., Jackson, D. et al. (2004) Effectiveness of the WHO guidelines for management of severe malnutrition in rural South African hospitals: Impact on case fatality and the influence of operational factors. Lancet 363: 1110-15.

Ashworth, A., Chopra, M., McCoy, D., et al. (2004) WHO guidelines for management of severe malnutrition in rural South African hospitals: effect on case fatality and the influence of operational factors. Lancet 2004; 363: 1110-1115. Link

Ashworth, A., Sanders, D., Chopra, M., McCoy, D., Schofield, C. (2004) Improving quality of care for severe malnutrition. Lancet 2004; 363: 2089. Link

Bachou, H., Tumwine, J.K., Mwadime, R.K., Tylleskar, T. (2006) Risk factors in hospital deaths in severely malnourished children in Kampala, Uganda. BMC Pediatr 6:7. Link

Berti, A., Bregani, E.R., Manenti, F., Pizzi, C. (2008) Outcome of severely malnourished children treated according to UNICEF 2004 guidelines: a one-year experience in a zone hospital in rural Ethiopia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 102, 939-944.

Bhan, M.K., Bhandari, N., Bhal, R. (2003) Management of the severely malnourished child: perspective from developing countries. BMJ 2003; 326: 146-151. Link

Brewster, D. (2006) Clinical appraisal of the management of severe malnutrition: 1. epidemiology and treatment guidelines. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health 42: 568-574. Link

Brewster, D. (2006) Clinical appraisal of the management of severe malnutrition: 3. Complications. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health 42: 583-593. Link

Brewster, D. (2004) Improving quality of care for severe malnutrition. Lancet 2004; 363: 2088-2089. Link

Brewster, D., Manary, M. (1995) Treatment of severe malnutrition. Lancet 1995; 345: 453. Link

Briend, A. (2001) Management of severe malnutrition: efficacious or effective? J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2001; 32: 521-522. Link

Bucens, I.K. and Maclennan, C. (2006) Survey of childhood malnutrition at Dili National Hospital, East Timor. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health 42: 28-32. Link

Deen, J.L., Funk, M., Guevara, V.C., Saloojee, H., Doe, J.Y, et al. (2003) Implementation of WHO guidelines on management of severe malnutrition in hospitals in Africa. Bull World Health Organ 81: 237–243. Link

Falbo, A.R., Alves, J.G.B., Filho, M.B and Cabral-Filho, J.E. (2006) Implementation of WHO guidelines for management of severe malnutrition in a hospital in Northeast Brazil. Cad. Saude Publica, Vol.22, no. 3.

Heikens, G.T. (1995) Treatment of malnutrition. Lancet 345: 788. Link

Heikens, G.T. (2007) How can we improve the care of severely malnourished children in Africa? PlosMEd 4 (2): e45; doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040045.Link

Heikens, G.T., Bunn, J., Amadi, B., Manary, M., Chhagan, M., Berkley, J.A., Rollins, N., Kelly, P., Adamczick, C., Maitland, K., & Tomkins, A. (2008) Case management of HIV-infected severely malnourished children: challenges in the areas of highest prevalence. The Lancet, 2008: 371: 1305-1307. Link

Heikens, G.T., Schofield, W.N., Dawson, S.M., Waterlow, J.C. (1994) Long-stay versus short-stay hospital treatment of children suffering from severe protein-energy malnutrition. Eur J Clin Nutr 48: 873–882.

Jackson, A.A., Ashworth, A., Khanum, S. (2006) Improving child survival: Malnutrition Task Force and the paediatrician’s responsibility. Arch Dis Child 91: 706–710. Link

Jelliffe, D.J (1970) The children’s ward as lethal factor. J Pediatr 77: 895–899.

Karaolis, N., Jackson, D., Ashworth, A., Sanders, D., Sogaula, N., et al. (2007) WHO guidelines for severe malnutrtition: Are they feasible in rural African hospitals? Arch Dis Child 92:198-204. Link

Khanum, S., Ashworth, A., Huttly, S.R.A. (1998) Growth, morbidity and mortality of children in Dhaka after treatment of severe malnutrition: a prospective study. AJCN 1998: 67:940-5. Link

Khanum, S., Ashworth, A., Huttly, S.R.A. (1994) Controlled trial of three approaches to the treatment for severe malnutrition. Lancet 344 (8939-8940): 1728-32.

Lawless, J., and Lawless, M.M. (1966) Admission and mortality in a children’s ward in an urban tropical hospital. Lancet 1966; 2: 1175-1176.

Maitland, K., Berkley, .JA., Shebbe, M., Peshu, N., English, M., et al. (2006) Children with severe malnutrition: Can those at highest risk of death be identified with the WHO protocol? PLoS Med 3: e500. Link

Manary, M. (2001) Protein-energy malnutrition: there is still work to do. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2001; 32: 519-520. Link

Manary, M.J., and Brewster, D.R. (2000) Intensive nursing care of kwashiorkor in Malawi. Acta Paediatr 89: 203–207. Link

Morrice, J.S. and Molyneux, E.M. (2003) Reduced mortality from severe protein-energy malnutrition following introduction of WHO protocol in children in Malawi. Arch Dis Child 88 (suppl 1): A28.

Nu Shwe, T. (2003) Logical and logistical aspects of management of a child with severe malnutrition and serious infection in hospital settings: what is new, challenges and way forward. Paper presented at 9th Asian Congress on Nutrition, 2003, Delhi.

Pecoul, B., Soutif, C., Hounkpevi, M., Ducos, M. (1992) Efficacy of a therapeutic feeding centre evaluated during hospitalization and a follow-up period, Tahoua, Niger, 1987–1988. Ann Trop Paediatr 12: 47-54.

Puoane, T., Sanders, D., Chopra, M., Ashworth, A., Strasser, S., et al. (2001) Evaluating the clinical management of severely malnourished children – a study of two rural district hospitals. S Afr Med J 91:137-41.

Puoane, T., Sanders, D., Ashworth, A., Chopra, M., Strasser, S., McCoy, D. (2003) Improving the hospital management of malnourished children by participatory research. Int J Qual Health Care 2003; 16: 31-40. Link

Puoane, T., Sanders, D., Chopra, M., et al. (2001) Evaluating the clinical management of severely malnourished children – a study of two rural district hospitals. S Afr Med J 2001; 91: 137-141.

Reneman, L. Derwig, J. (1997) Long-term prospects of malnourished children after rehabilitation at the Nutrition Rehabilitation Centre of St Mary’s Hospital, Mumias, Kenya. J Trop Pediatr 1997; 43: 293-296.

Roosmalen-Wiebenga, M.W., Kusin, J.A., de With, C. (1986) Nutrition rehabilitation in hospital—a waste of time and money? Evaluation of nutrition rehabilitation in a rural district hospital in southwest Tanzania: I, short-term results. J Trop Pediatr 1986; 32: 240-243. Link

Schofield, C. and Ashworth, A. (1996) Why have mortality rates for severe malnutrition remained so high? Bull World Health Organ 74: 223–229. Link

Schofield, C. and Ashworth, A. (1997) Severe malnutrition in children: high case-fatality rates can be reduced. Afr Health 1997; 19: 17-18.

Tolboom, J.J. (2000) Management of severe malnutrition and diarrhea. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition. 30(3):346-8. Link

Waterlow, J.C. (2000) Intensive nursing care of kwashiorkor in Malawi. Acta Paediatr 2000; 89: 138-140. Link

Wilkinson, D., Scrase, M., Boyd, N. (1996) Reduction in in-hospital mortality of children with malnutrition. J Trop Pediatr 1996; 42: 114-115.

Hospital triage

Robertson, M.A. and Moyneux, E.M. Triage in the developing world—Can it be done? Arch Dis Child 85: 208–213. Link

Molyneux, E., Ahmad, S., Robertson, A. (2006) Improved triage and emergency care for children reduces inpatient mortality in resource constrained settings. Bull World Health Organ 84: 314–319. Link